From a socio-political point of view, the growing number of hybrid self-employed is associated with the concern that gaps could open up in their old-age provision. However, hybrid self-employment episodes are usually of short duration, although they often occur several times in the course of employment. Only for a minority does hybrid self-employment represent a permanent employment status. The role of hybrid self-employment in the employment history depends on a number of socio-demographic characteristics, but less on gender. In combination with the income level, the analysis of the employment histories does not give any indication that special problems in old-age provision of hybrid self-employed are to be expected due to hybrid self-employment per se.
Facts and figures | 2023 Hybrid self-employment in the employment trajectory. Analyses based on the Taxpayer Panel 2001-2018
Butkowski, O.K.; Kay, R. (2023): Hybride Selbstständigkeit im Erwerbsverlauf. Analysen anhand der Taxpayer-Panels 2001-2018, in: IfM Bonn: Daten und Fakten Nr. 33, Bonn.