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Hybrid self-employment - development, structure and characteristics

Client: Forschungsnetzwerk Alterssicherung (FNA)

The study examines the hybrid forms of employment in Germany which means that individuals at working age are both dependent and self-employed.

The aim of the study is to quantify such forms of employment and their composition, development over time and durability between the years 2001 and 2016. Moreover, entry into and exit out of hybrid employment and what that means for individual career paths are analysed. Typcial characteristics will be analysed and unveiled. In order to obtain a complete picture of the income situation of hybrid entrepreneurs, we investigate further sources of income like capital income or income from renting and leasing.

The data is based on the so-called Taxpayer Panel of the Federal Statistical Office.

Project duration: March 2020 to March 2022


Butkowski, O.; Suprinovic, O.; Kay, R. (2022): Entwicklung der hybriden Selbstständigkeit in Deutschland - Analysen anhand des Taxpayer-Panels 2001-2016, in: IfM Bonn: Daten und Fakten Nr. 30, Bonn

Contact person: Dr. Rosemarie Kay